India eager to develop its renewable infrastructure may yet reach its ambitious target of 175, gigawatts on stream in the year 2022 and 450 gigawatts overall renewable energy capacity by the close of this decade to do that, Indians will need to make solar panels. Lots of them
Solar panels, also called solar modules are made up of several individual solar cells, these cells can trace their origins, back to simple, silica sand, from which silicon is extracted. Silicone is the second most abundant element found in the Earth’s crust, by the way, so we’re not likely to run out anytime soon. Cooked in two thousand degrees Celsius in a furnace along with a source of carbon the rolled element is then cooled to create metallurgical grade silicon. This is usually liquefied again to remove remaining impurities, It’s then blended with the pinch of boron and a dash of phosphorus molded into ingots then sliced into tiny Wafers Less than 0.2. Mm thick, these Wafers are then coated with silicon nitride and roughed up a bit to create texture and reduce reflectivity any light that bounces off a solar panel is wasted
silver Paste is then applied to the front and rear surface and pretty much. That’s your solar cell, These incoming cells are visually inspected to find any obvious cracks, or breakages cracks in the solar cells, rendering them useless for large modular applications like solar panels, but more often than not smaller sections of the solar cell, can be cut away than used for smaller, less intensive off-grid applications like solar-powered toys, after this manual visual inspection, the first of several tests under blasts of artificial sunlight to check They work is undertaken, then a hydraulic conveyor system introduces a layer of Eva that stands for ethylene, vinyl acetate to a flat pain of tempered glass. This EVA layer serves as an adhesive to hold fast the rows of solar cells that are automatically laid on the painting in a careful tile pattern by a 6 axis robot arm that can move 12 cells are once the cells are connected and ultimately the grid via a crisscross pattern of narrow metal fingers and flattened bus bars,
Engineers, looking to maximize the efficiency of solar cells have debated. Whether it’s better to have more busbars, conventional wisdom says, five is a good upper limit because resistance is low, and although, the additional Hardware inevitably Shades, part of the solar cell more fingers and busbars can also mitigate the risk of micro-cracks appearing in the cell or at least prevent cracks spreading too far across the cell Once. All the cells are in place, another layer of Eva is added over the panel and an additional back sheet is added to encapsulate, the cells and internal wiring. The next stage is called pre-lamination electroluminescence exploiting one curious property of photovoltaic cells that they light up whenever a current is passed through them inspectors can look even closer for micro cracks. that might render the final panel inefficient or worse useless all they need to do is identify the dark spots. These micro-cracks incidentally can creep in at any stage of the process. silicon. Wafers are notoriously brittle and mishaps during the manufacturing or Transportation face Common wild fluctuations in ambient. Temperature can also cause irreversible damage. After this pre-lamination Electro, the luminescence phase comes. You guessed its lamination, and the Industrial laminator applies heat and vacuum pressure to the sandwich of glass. Eva solar cells and wires hold everything together in a tort weatherproof manner following this stage, and circuit ribbons are attached to the edges and an aluminum frame placed around the Edge, this aluminum frame offers the panel sturdiness, which helps prevent nasty Frank’s these frames also, make the panel’s much easier to handle and store as well as offering some resistance to the day-to-day mechanical loads for the panel will be subjected to like heavy snow or gale, force winds, another Electroluminescence, the test follows, and the installation of a so-called junction box on the bank, side of the module using strong silicone adhesive this junction box serves not only as of the collector of electricity, but it’s diode since your power.
Only of a Flows In One Direction, this is important because solar panels by their very nature, generate differing and unpredictable amounts of electricity throughout their working lives. Final testing looks for weaknesses in the panel’s Weatherproofing next, the completed panel is subjected to a final blast of artificial sunlight. And now our panel is ready to ship