Cement price in Kerala

Cement is the most essential construction material used in buildings from the very beginning of construction, Cement price in Kerala is a major factor to consider when you are about to calculate the total construction cost, In all the major cities like Kochi, Calicut, and Trivandrum, 

cement is sold at slightly different prices according to the stock availability and frequent updating of the cement price in Kerala cities by the manufacturing company

The average price of cement in Kerala varies from Rs. 320 to 410 for premium quality cement per bag of 50 kg


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What is cement?

what is cement?

Cement is a hydraulic binder, i.e., an inorganic,non-metallic, finely ground substance which, after mixing with water, sets and hardens as a result of chemical reactions with the mixing water and,  after hardening, it retains its strength and stability even underwater. 

Invention of cement

The first occurrence of ‘Portland Cement’ came about in the 19th century. In 1824, Joseph Aspdin, a British mason/bricklayer from Leeds, took out a patent on a hydraulic cement that he called “Portland Cement” because of its similarity to Portland stone, a type of building stone that was quarried on the Isle of Portland in Dorset, England, a peninsula in the English Channel. 

Raw materials of cement

Now let us discuss the raw materials which are used for the manufacture of cement,  their characteristics, and quality requirements.  There are three types of raw materials that are used in the production of cement. They are –  Types of Raw Materials:  1. Calcareous Materials 2. Argillaceous Materials  3. Corrective Materials  

Calcareous Materials

Calcareous materials are calcium-bearing carbonates.  • Calcareous materials are • Limestone (95-100%CaCO3)  • Marly Limestone (75-85%CaCO3) • Chalk (95-100%CaCO3)  • Marble (95-100%CaCO3) • Lime – Sand (85-95%CaCO3)  • Shell deposits (85-95% CaCO3) • Limestone is the main raw material used in cement manufacture.  • It contains CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 as major oxides (components)  • Na2O, K2O, Cl, SO3, Mn2O3, Cr2O3, TiO2, etc. as minor oxides (components)  • 

 Limestone is a source of lime (CaO)  • The main minerals present in limestone are calcite, aragonite, and dolomite.  Calcite (CaCO3)  • Crystal System – Hexagonal, Rhombohedral • Common Substitution – Mn, Fe, Mg  • Specific Gravity – 2.72 • Dissociation Temperature – Initial – ~, Final  – 898oC  Aragonite (CaCO3)  • Crystal System – Orthorhombic • Common Substitution – Sr, Pb, Zn  • Specific Gravity – 2.94 • Dissociation Temperature – Initial – 425oC  (Aragonite to Calcite), Final – 898oC  Dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2]  • Crystal System – Hexagonal, Rhombohedral • Common Substitution – Fe,Mn,Co,Zn  • Specific Gravity – 2.86 • Dissociation Temperature – Initial – 725oC  (MgCO3), Final – 890oC  

Best quality cement brands in Kerala

Ultratech cement

Homebuilders in Kerala prefer ultratech cement mainly for roof slab concreting. With a consolidated capacity of 117.95 Million Tonne Per Annum MPTA, UltraTech is India’s largest manufacturer of grey cement, white cement, and ready-mix concrete (RMC)

Ambuja Cement

Ambuja cements is another popular brand in Kerala cities. Ambuja Cement has a capacity of 29.65 million tonnes production with five integrated cement manufacturing plants and eight cement grinding units across the country.

JSW cement

JSW cement, India’s leading ‘Green Cement’ manufacturer, growing exponentially since Its inception in 2009. JSW has reached a production capacity of 14 MTPA (Million Tonnes Per Annum) with minimum industrial wastage over the past 13 years.

ACC cement

ACC Limited (ACC) is a leading player in the Indian building materials space, with pan-India manufacturing and marketing presence. With 17 cement manufacturing units, over 90 ready mix concrete plants, over 6,600 employees, a vast distribution network of 50,000+ dealers & retailers, and a countrywide spread of sales offices

Types of cement

Mainly three types of cement products are widely sold in the Kerala market, based on the durability, curing time and other properties customers has to choose from the following types

Ordinary portland cement

OPC (commonly referred to as ordinary cement) refers to the hydraulically bonding base material manufactured by mixing Portland cement clinker, 6% ~ 15% of the blended materials, and the appropriate amount of gypsum.

Ordinary Portland cement is the most commonly used  for a wide range of applications like ordinary, standard, high strength concretes, masonry and plastering work, precast concrete products for e.g., blocks, pipes, etc., and  in specialized works such as precast and prestressed concrete blocks

Portland pozzolana cement

The ash/slag in the required ratio is ground with clinker and gypsum to produce Portland pozzolanic cement (PPC) / Portland slag cement (PSC).

The ground cement is stored in concrete silos and packed in 50 kg bags with electronic packaging machines.

Concrete produced by Portland Pozzolana cement has high ultimate strength, is more durable, resists wet cracking, thermal cracking, and has a high degree of cohesion and workability in concrete and mortar.

Malabar cement

Cement price in Kerala prediction

Kerala is one of the states where cement is sold at a higher price than other parts of India, mainly since it depend on other states and cement is transported from the north, cement manufacturing companies in India has been supplying quality cement to Kerala cities in bulk cement carriers mainly by railway

An increase in imported coal and pet coke prices make a big impact on cement prices, in the last months of the year 2021 Kerala builders face a sudden rise in cement prices, In the first quarter of the year 2022 cement prices are expected to increase again

Different grades of cement

33 GRADE CEMENT

The cement grade showed the compressive strength of the cement after 28 days of setting. Cement 33 Grade reached a compressive strength of 33 MPa (megapascals) in 28 days of setting.

Initial Strength:

33 classes reached 16 MPa in 3 days, 22 MPa in 7 days.

This cement is used for general civil engineering under normal environmental conditions. It can also be used to install a single-story detached house. Due to its low compressive strength, this cement is generally not used where high-quality concrete is required, namely M-20 and higher. The availability of higher classes of OPC on the market has affected the use of 33 ° OPC and now 43 ° OPC is commonly used for general designs instead of 33 ° OPC.

43 GRADE CEMENT

The cement grade showed the compressive strength of the cement after 28 days of setting. 43 Grade cement reached a compressive strength of 43 MPa(megapascals) during 28 days of setting compared to 53 MPa obtained with 53 Grade cement.

Initial Strength:

43rd class reached 23 MPa in 3 days, 33 MPa in 7 days.

43 grade  OPC can be used for the following applications:

›Construction of general civil engineering

›RCC work (best if the concrete class is up to M-30)

›Prefabricated products such as blocks, tiles, pipes, and more

›Asbestos products such as sheets and pipes

›Non-construction work, such as plaster, floors, etc.

53 GRADE CEMENT

The cement grade showed the compressive strength of the cement after 28 days of setting. Cement 53 Grade reached a compressive strength of 53 MPa (megapascals) in 28 days of setting.

53 grade cement is used for fast paced construction whose initial strength is easier to achieve. Cement 53 degrees has a faster setting compared to cement 43 grade


53 Grade OPC can be used for the following applications.

›RCC work (best if the concrete class is M-25 and higher)

›Prefabricated concrete objects, such as pavement blocks, tile building blocks, etc.

›Prestressed concrete parts

›Runway, concrete road, bridge, and more.

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From raw materials to 8 steps of cement manufacturing, read everything about the production of cement

Raw Mix Proportioning and Raw Mix Design of cement The raw materials mixture is called raw mix or raw meal or kiln feed, The continuous production of high-quality cement is possible only if the raw mix possesses optimum composition, The purpose of calculating the composition of the raw mix is to determine the quantitative proportions of the components of the raw materials to give clinker the desired chemical and mineralogical composition and for smooth kiln operation.    Main Parameters for Raw Mix Design,    The raw mix composition is usually characterized by certain ratios called moduli. They are proportioning formulas in which percentages of various oxides as determined by chemical analysis are included., The three important moduli are lime saturation factor (LSF), silica modulus (SM), and alumina modulus (AM). Lime Saturation Factor (LSF), LSF represents the ratio of the actual amount of lime (CaO) to the theoretical lime required by other major oxides in raw mix/clinker., It is the ratio of CaO to the other three main oxides.   A clinker with a higher LSF will have a higher proportion of elite than a clinker with a low LSF., Limiting the range of LSF in clinker is 0.66 – 1.02 and the preferable range is 0.92 – 0.96. Silica Modulus (SM), SM represents the proportion of SiO2 to the total of Al2O3 and Fe2O3., It is the ratio of SiO2 to the sum of Al2O3 and Fe2O3. SiO2 SM = Al2O3 + Fe2O3,    A high SM means that more calcium silicates (C3S + C2S) and less aluminate (C3A) and ferrite (C4AF) are present in the clinker., In addition, it characterizes the ratio of solid/liquid and the amount of liquid phase in the clinker., Kiln process (coatings, rings, dusty clinker) is sensitive to SM changes., The limiting range of SM in clinker is 1.9 – 3.2 and the preferable range is 2.1 – 2.7. Alumina Modulus (AM), AM characterizes the raw meal/clinker by the proportion of alumina to iron oxide., It is the ratio of Al2O3 to Fe2O3. Al2O3 AM = Fe2O3, AM determines the potential proportions of aluminate (C3A) and ferrite phase (C4AF) in the clinker., In addition, it characterizes the composition of the liquid phase in the clinker,    Alumina and iron oxide have flux effect., The liquid phase promotes the C3S formation., Higher iron oxide decreases the viscosity of the melt, increasing the speed of reaction between CaO and SiO2., Low alumina modulus = Easier burning due to low viscosity., Limiting the range of AM in clinker is 1.2 – 2.5 and a preferable range is 1.3 – 1.6 Raw Mix Design Calculation Prerequisites for Raw Mix Design Calculation, Raw Materials 1. Chemistry 2. Materials cost,    There are many methods of calculation: from the simplest to more complicated ones., The basis for calculation is the chemical composition of the raw materials. Generally, data of chemical analysis should be accurate to two places of decimals. Results of the analysis are more than 100%, each constituent being proportionally reduced. If on the other hand, the total of constituents is less than 100 the constituents are not proportionally increased to 100. In this case, the difference from 100 is denoted as ‘rest’, so that the total of all constituents is then 100. Ingredients and properties of cement compounds Ingredients:     1. Lime (CaO):, This is the important ingredient of cement  and its proportion is to be carefully maintained.,A sufficient quantity of lime forms tricalcium  silicate (C3S) and dicalcium silicate (C2S),   The lime in excess makes the cement unsound and causes the expansion and disintegration of the cement. , On the other hand, if the lime is deficient, it will decrease the strength of the cement and will cause it to set quickly.    2. Silica (SiO2):, It imparts strength to the cement due to the formation of dicalcium silicate and tricalcium  silicate.,If silica is present in excess quantity

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Workability, fractural strength, and compressive strength testing of concreate

Workability of concrete workability is one of the physical parameters of concrete which affects the strength and durability, as well as the cost of labor and appearance of the finished product, workability of concrete is defined as the ease with which concrete can be mixed placed compacted and finished, concrete is said to be workable when it is easily placed and compacted homogeneously that is without bleeding or segregation,  Technically speaking workability of concrete is the amount of useful internal work necessary to produce 100 compactions it is said that wet concrete is more workable than dry concrete workability is described as very low, medium, high, and variable  types of workability   There are three types number one is unworkable concrete also called harsh concrete, it is concrete with very less amount of water content, hand mixing of this type of concrete is not so easy, these types of concrete have high segregation of aggregates as cement paste is not lubricated properly we stick to aggregates in this type of concrete, it is very difficult to maintain homogeneity of concrete mix and compaction requires more effort water-cement ratio for this type of concrete is below 0.4 unworkable concrete needs more work or effort to be compacted    Second is medium workable, this type of concrete is used in most of the construction work this type of concrete is comparatively easy to mix transport pour, and compact without any segregation and loss of homogeneity, the water-cement ratio of medium workable concrete is 0.42 0.55, this type of concrete is used in construction with light reinforcement, generally, a spacing of reinforcement allows concrete to compact effectively    Third one is highly workable this type of concrete is relatively very easy to mix transport or this type of concrete is used where effective compaction is not possible or in mass highly workable concrete flow easily and settle down without any effort but there are very higher chances of segregation and loss of homogeneity in this case such concrete is used where heavy reinforcement is used and where the vibration of concrete is not possible highly workable concrete is self-compacting water symmetry issue for this type of concrete is more than 0.5  Fractural strength concrete The fracture strength of the concrete, is the ability of an unreinforced beam or slab to resist failure in bending, that is bending moment flexible strength is one measure of the tensile strength of concrete, the ideal method for determination of the tensile occurs in bending when the tensile strength at the bottom of the beam exceeds the tensile capacity of the concrete, which is called the modulus of rupture that is extreme fiber stress in bending, the stress can be calculated as modulus of rupture  Compressive streangth of concrete compressive strength of concrete  is a measure of the concrete’s ability to resist loads that tend to compress heat a force is applied to the top and bottom of a test sample until the sample fractures or is deformed, the compressive strength is determined by loading the molded concrete specimen specimens either cubes or cylinders in uniaxial compression until ultimate failure, normally a strength of cylinder specimen is taken as 0.8 times the strength of q,  compressive strength depends on several factors like water symmetry, cement contained, characteristics of cement, type and properties of aggregate, degree of compaction, curing aid at the time of testing, testing conditions, ambient conditions, specimen geometry rate of loading, etc Determining compressive streangth of concrete and testing procedure the compressive strength of concrete is given in terms of the characteristic, compressive strength of 150 mm size cubes tested at 28 days, as per Indian standards, the correct characteristic compressive strength is defined as the strength of the concrete below which not more than five percent of the test results are expected to fail    The dry proportion of ingredients that is cement sand and coarse aggregate, as

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